Basics of programming
For Object Oriented Programming concepts click the given link

Basics of programming

Basics of programming : Programs are the block of codes or set of instructions that is given to the computer to perform a particular task.
Programming is the process of writing a computer program.
Programming language is a set of commands and syntax used to create a computer program.
A Programmer is a person who writes a computer program.

Programming Paradigm
—It is an approach or style of programming that is used to classify programming languages.
—Each programming uses one or more programming paradigms.

POP(Procedure Oriented Programming)
— —A programming paradigm where a complex programming problem is solved by dividing it into smaller problems using functions(procedure) is known as POP.
—Since we start a t the top and then worked out way downwards toward finding the solution of each part this style is termed as a top-down approach.
—It is best suited for a problems with step-by-step instructions. It is based on the concept of procedures. —A procedure is a sequence of instructions to be executed.
—FORTRAN(FORmula TRANslation) is an early language that uses POP. 

Guidelines for POP
—Break down a big problem into several tasks or parts.
—Find solution of each part separately., by treating it as a new problem which can be further broken down into several parts.
—Repeat this process until it does not require further break down. —Combine all the solutions in to the final solution.
—This solution is called a procedure /function.
—A function is a set of instructions to be carried out.

Characteristics of POP
—A top down approach
—Program is divided into functions
—It models real world processes.
—Data and functions are detached from each other.
—Data moves freely
—Easy to follow the logic of the program
—A function can access other functions data

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Limitations of POP
—Focuses on procedures
—Data and functions are separate from each other
—Global data is freely moving and shared among various functions —Changes in data type need to be carried out manually
—Limited and difficult code re usability
—Does not model real world entities very well.
—Does not work for large and complex systems.

OOP(Object Oriented Paradigm)
—It is best suited for problems with a large amount of related data. —Object:– Everything (that we see around us)is an object.
—It is an identifiable entity with some attributes and behavior.
— Example car is an object.
—Attributes:- color, make, model, engine size
—Behavior:- driving forward, driving backward,  accelerating, halting.

Guidelines for OOP
—In OOP the focus is on objects.
—To solve a problem
—Start by identifying the objects involved in the problem.
—Identify the attributes(data) and behavior(functions) of these objects. —Start at bottom by identifying the objects and then work upwards towards the solution of the problem. That is why this approach is called Bottom up approach.

Characteristics of OOP
—Bottom up approach
—Program is a Collection of objects
—Better control over data.
—Reusability is better.
—It models real world entities very well.
—Good for solving complex programs.
Limitations of OOP
—Size of the program is large
—It needs pre-work and planning
—Difficult to understand
—Consumes large amount of memory

To learn more about class and object visit the given link
—A class can be thought of as a template or blueprint for multiple objects with similar features.
—An object belonging to a particular class is called an instance of that class. —It is used to describe a group of objects that have common attributes and behavior.  For example lion, giraffes and cows can be grouped into a class called animal.

An object is an identifiable entity with some attributes and behavior. The attributes of an object are represented by the data, and the behavior is represented by the functions the object can perform. For example student is an object , it will have name, father’s name, address, surname, height, weight, birth date as data members and it will have behavior like studying, giving exam, playing and getting result.

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